Rocio Moustafa
Rocio Moustafa - Bipolar I and Bipolar II Disorders

Rocio Moustafa Addresses Differences Between Bipolar I and Bipolar II Disorders

Behavior and mood expert Rocio Moustafa provides professional insight into key differences between types of bipolar disorder.

 

rocio moustafa
rocio moustafa

Having written previously on the topic of bipolar disorder more generally, including symptoms, treatment options, and more, Rocio Moustafa offers a closer professional look at the key differences between bipolar I disorder, and bipolar II disorder.

 

“Both bipolar or bipolar I disorder, and so-called bipolar II disorder represent forms of mental illness,” explains Moustafa, a Los Angeles behavioral expert specializing in mood, cognition, and perception, “wherein which patients cycle between extremely high and extremely low moods over time.”

 

Typically, however, only those diagnosed with bipolar I disorder reach the highest of high or ‘up’ moods, also known as ‘full-blown mania,’ according to the California-based expert. “In bipolar II patients, the less-intense elevated moods witnessed are known as hypomanic episodes, or simply hypomania,” she explains.

 

Signs and symptoms of both bipolar I and bipolar II disorders include jumping rapidly from one idea to the next, experiencing exaggerated self-confidence, overly loud or what’s known as ‘pressured’ speech, hyperactivity, and a reduced need for sleep.

 

Those diagnosed with bipolar II disorder are more likely to encounter episodes of depression. This is the source of the term or name ‘manic depressive disorder,’ another, more informal way of describing bipolar II disorder.

 

“In between episodes,” Moustafa goes on to explain, “sufferers of bipolar II disorder often live normal lives.”

 

Yet individuals diagnosed, she says, with bipolar I disorder, and who experience full manic episodes, may require periods of supportive care, including hospitalization.

 

“Bipolar I disorder patients, in particular, often require inpatient psychiatric care, especially if illicit drugs and alcohol are involved,” reveals Moustafa. Here, individual suffering from bipolar I disorder and experiencing full manic symptoms can be controlled via mood stabilizers, she further explains, and antipsychotic drugs for rapid tranquilization where self-harm or harm to others is a risk.

 

Forms of medication utilized in the management and treatment of bipolar II disorder in the United States include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and a range of associated drugs. “Commonly referred to as SSRIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are employed to ease symptoms of anxiety or depressed mood in those suffering from bipolar II disorder,” Moustafa explains, wrapping up, “yet they are not suitable for bipolar I disorder patients, as they can trigger psychotic episodes in these individuals.”

 

Rocio Moustafa, from Los Angeles, California, is a behavioral expert focused on bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and passive-dependent personality disorder. Rocio also specializes in sleep conditions, gambling addiction, malingering, and extreme or debilitating fears and phobias, as well as further health and wellness complaints tied to cognition, perception, and mood.

Expert Rocio Moustafa revisits bipolar disorder and treatment options

Rocio Moustafa 

Los Angeles resident and behavioral expert Rocio Moustafa offers a professional look at bipolar disorder and effective treatment of the condition.

A California-based behavioral expert from Los Angeles, previously located in the nearby coastal city of Ventura, Rocio Moustafa offers her professional insight into bipolar disorder and effective medications, therapy methods, and other treatment options available for successfully managing the condition.

“It’s widely accepted that bipolar disorder cannot strictly be cured,” reveals Moustafa, a behavioral expert specializing in mood, cognition, and perception, “yet a range of treatment options do exist for managing the condition, including medication and therapy.”

According to nonprofit academic medical center Mayo Clinic, headquartered in Rochester, Minnesota, bipolar disorder is considered a ‘common’ condition in the United States, with more than 3 million new cases diagnosed each year.

“The main symptom of bipolar disorder centers around mood swing episodes where an individual goes from manic highs to depressive lows, and vice versa,” explains behavioral expert Moustafa. Treatment, she says, often consists of a mix of medication and therapy, including psychotherapy. “Cognitive behavioral therapy, psychoeducation, support groups, and family therapy may all be utilized,” adds Moustafa, “to help those suffering from bipolar disorder to better manage the condition.”

A chronic condition by definition, bipolar disorder and its symptoms may last for several years, or, indeed, be lifelong, according to Moustafa. “Also commonly known as manic depressive disorder, bipolar disorder requires a formal medical diagnosis before effective treatment can begin,” she adds.

Patients are typically diagnosed as ‘bipolar 1’ or ‘bipolar 2,’ based on the severity of the manic episodes experienced by an individual. A bipolar 1 patient will experience full manic episodes, while an individual diagnosed as bipolar 2 will only experience less severe so-called ‘hypomanic’ episodes.

Forms of medication utilized in the treatment of bipolar 2 disorder in the United States include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and a range of associated drugs. “Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, commonly referred to as SSRIs, are employed to ease symptoms of anxiety or depressed mood in those suffering from bipolar 2 disorder,” Moustafa explains, “yet they are not suitable for bipolar 1 patients, as they can trigger psychotic episodes in these individuals.”

“Supportive care for bipolar disorder may also involve periods of hospitalization,” she continues, “with bipolar 1 disorder, in particular, often requiring inpatient psychiatric care, especially if illicit drugs and alcohol are involved, and where full manic symptoms can be controlled by mood stabilizers and antipsychotic drugs for rapid tranquilization where self-harm or harm to others is a risk.”

Conditions related to bipolar disorder include schizophrenia, psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, clinical depression, and borderline personality disorder. “Where bipolar disorder is suspected,” Rocio Moustafa adds, wrapping up, “a patient should seek formal diagnosis, ideally from a clinical psychologist or a psychiatrist, or, where this isn’t possible, a primary care provider or family doctor, so that appropriate treatment may begin in earnest.”

Rocio Moustafa, from Los Angeles, California, is a behavioral expert focused on bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and passive-dependent personality disorder. She also specializes in sleep conditions, gambling addiction, malingering, and extreme or debilitating fears and phobias, as well as further health and wellness complaints tied to cognition, perception, and mood.

Rocio Moustafa Considers the Condition Known as Malingering

Los Angeles-area behavioral expert Rocio Moustafa takes a closer look at so-called malingering.

 

Rocio Moustafa
Rocio Moustafa

Considered a form of excessive illness behavior, malingering represents the fabrication of symptoms of one or more mental or physical conditions or disorders for a variety of purposes, including obtaining a medication, insurance fraud, and avoiding school, work, or military service. A professional behavior expert, Rocio Moustafa takes a closer look at the condition.

 

“Although a well-recognized condition, malingering does not constitute a formal medical diagnosis,” explains Moustafa, an expert specializing in conditions tied to mood, cognition, and perception from Los Angeles, California, previously based in the nearby city of Ventura. “Furthermore, malingering is largely deemed to be distinct from other forms of excessive illness behavior, including fictitious and somatization disorders, for example,” she adds.

 

Cases of malingering cause a significant burden upon health care systems and disability initiatives—as well as workers’ compensation programs—in the United States, and often harm genuine patients and claimants, according to Moustafa. “Malingering places a serious, unnecessary, and unwarranted strain upon organizations such as the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and its disability benefits program,” adds the expert.

 

Rocio Moustafa Touches on Symptoms

Genuine conditions routinely faked by so-called malingerers include fibromyalgia, whiplash pain from automobile accidents, post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic pain, and chronic fatigue syndrome, as well as the after-effects of mild head injuries.

 

“Malingering, by definition, has its roots as far back as early as Roman times,” reveals Moustafa, “where the Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher Aelius Galenus, also known as Galen of Pergamon, recorded a patient simulating colic to avoid a public meeting.”

 

The Roman Empire-era physician also reportedly recorded another case in which a patient feigned a knee injury to avoid having to undertake a long journey with his master, according to Moustafa.

 

“In modern cases, individuals may harm themselves or take drugs and other medications in order to provoke a particular set of symptoms, after which they can attempt to fool a medical professional into believing that they are sick,” the California-based expert continues, “often having read up on a particular disease, illness, or condition from medical textbooks or the internet.”

 

Associated conditions include Ganser syndrome, hypochondriasis or hypochondria, so-called ‘factitious disorder imposed on self,’ also known as Munchausen syndrome, and ‘factitious disorder imposed on another,’ also known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy.

 

“Malingering is today estimated to cost the U.S. insurance industry upwards of $5 billion annually,” adds Rocio Moustafa, in closing, “with a particular report from the Texas Department of Insurance claiming that fraud which involves malingering may, in fact, cost the industry as much as $150 billion per year.”

Rocio Moustafa

Rocio Moustafa highlights areas of specialty as a behavioral expert

Professional behavior expert Rocio Moustafa shares an insight into her key areas of specialization, including bipolar and narcissistic personality disorders.

From bipolar disorder to blood and injury phobias, professional behavior expert Rocio Moustafa, today based in Los Angeles, California, and who has previously practiced in the attractive, nearby city of Ventura, offers an insight into her successful, decades-long career specializing in conditions tied to mood, cognition, and perception.

“My main areas of focus include narcissistic personality disorder, gambling addiction and its consequences, passive-dependent personality disorder, blood and injury phobias—particularly among those employed in the medical field—plus bipolar disorder and its treatment, and antisocial personality disorder,” reveals Moustafa.

Narcissistic personality disorder, she says, is a disorder characterized by an excessive need for admiration, exaggerated feelings of self-importance, and a lack of empathy for others. “Chief among narcissistic personality disorder symptoms are various issues surrounding a lack of self-control,” adds Moustafa.

“This, somewhat,” she continues, “ties in with gambling addiction and its consequences, with the affliction capable of ruining friendships and tearing whole families apart.”

Gambling addiction, now more than ever, is becoming increasingly prevalent in large parts of the United States, according to the expert.

Of passive-dependent personality disorder and blood and injury phobias among those employed in the medical field, she continues, “Passive-dependent personality disorder causes pessimism, a lack of self-confidence, oversensitivity to criticism, and a tendency to be unduly naive or to routinely fantasize about various aspects of day-to-day life,” says Moustafa. “Blood and injury phobias, meanwhile,” she goes on, “particularly among those employed in the medical field, represent an extreme fear responsible for causing severe physical reactions uncommon in many other phobias.”

Moustafa also explains how bipolar and antisocial personality disorders affect patients. “Bipolar can present as a frequent loss of touch with reality, and a complete loss of interest in day-to-day tasks and activities,” the Los Angeles-based expert reveals, “while antisocial personality disorder often sees those affected embracing in risky and impulsive behavior, lying, and law-breaking.”

“Behavior therapy and psychotherapy are,” she adds, wrapping up, “among the most commonly recommended forms of treatment for many such disorders as well as phobias and addiction problems, provided by either a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, or a combination of both.”

Rocio Moustafa, from Los Angeles, California, is a behavioral expert specializing in antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, bipolar disorder, and passive-dependent personality disorder. She also specializes in sleep conditions, gambling addiction and its consequences, extreme or debilitating fears and phobias—including hemophobia and traumatophobia—and further health and wellness complaints tied to cognition, perception, and mood.

Rocio Moustafa shares professional insight into antisocial personality disorder

Rocio Moustafa 4

Specialist behavioral expert Rocio Moustafa takes a closer look at the condition known as antisocial personality disorder.

With more than 200,000 cases diagnosed in the United States each year, antisocial personality disorder is a mental health condition primarily characterized by a disregard for other people. An expert on behavior, mood, cognition, and perception from Southern California, Rocio Moustafa takes a closer look at those most likely to be affected, the symptoms, and the available treatment options when considering antisocial personality disorder.

“While antisocial personality disorder may begin to show symptoms, including risky and impulsive behavior, lying, and law-breaking, in childhood, the condition cannot be formally diagnosed until either adolescence or adulthood,” explains Moustafa, who’s currently based in the City of Los Angeles, the most populous city in California with an estimated population of four million.

Rocio Moustafa has also previously worked in Ventura, California, with both Los Angeles and Ventura known across the United States for their Mediterranean-like climate and rich cultures. “Individuals with antisocial personality disorder often tend to demonstrate, for example, a lack of regard for either their own safety or the safety of others around them,” she explains, “as well as a tendency to lie, break laws, and act impulsively.”

While symptoms may lessen with age, Moustafa reveals that antisocial personality disorder is considered a chronic condition which can last for decades, or, indeed, be lifelong. “Treatment may begin with talk therapy,” she explains, “coupled with additional support for family members affected by their loved one’s often extremely troubling and problematic personality disorder and its symptoms.”

Requiring a medical diagnosis, those with antisocial personality disorder may experience any one or more of a large number of further behaviors and symptoms. These include, according to Moustafa, antisocial behavior, aggression, hostility, irritability, irresponsibility, deceitfulness, and manipulativeness, as well as physical substance abuse or dependence. “Their mood will often be one of anger, boredom, or general discontent,” she adds.

“Family therapy, behavior therapy, and psychotherapy are all recommended forms of treatment for antisocial personality disorder,” suggests Moustafa, wrapping up, “provided by either a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, or a combination of the two.”

Rocio Moustafa, from Los Angeles, California, is a behavioral expert specializing in antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, bipolar disorder, and passive-dependent personality disorder. She also specializes in sleep conditions, gambling addiction and its consequences, extreme or debilitating fears and phobias—including hemophobia and traumatophobia—and further health and wellness complaints tied to cognition, perception, and mood.

Rocio Moustafa Discusses Bipolar Disorder and Appropriate Treatment

Los Angeles-based behavioral expert Rocio Moustafa explores bipolar disorder, therapy methods, and effective medications for treatment.

 

rocio moustafa
rocio moustafa

A disorder considered ‘common’ by nonprofit academic medical center Mayo Clinic, with more than 3 million new cases diagnosed in the United States each year, bipolar disorder is a condition associated with mood swing episodes ranging from manic highs to depressive lows, according to behavioral expert Rocio Moustafa.

 

“While treatment can help those diagnosed with bipolar disorder, the condition cannot strictly be cured,” explains Moustafa, a behavioral expert specializing in mood, cognition, and perception from Los Angeles, California.

 

A chronic condition which may last for many years, or be lifelong, bipolar disorder requires a formal medical diagnosis. Also known as manic depressive disorder, ‘manic’ symptoms include high energy and a reduced need for sleep, coupled with a frequent loss of touch with reality. Depressive episodes, on the other hand, may include symptoms such as low motivation, low energy, and a complete loss of interest in day-to-day tasks and activities, according to Moustafa.

 

Treatment, says the expert, typically consists of a combination of medication and therapy, including psychotherapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy, support groups, psychoeducation, and family therapy may also be utilized, she adds, to help those suffering from bipolar disorder.

 

“Medications most commonly used in the treatment of bipolar or manic depressive disorder include so-called ‘selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or SSRIs, designed to ease symptoms of depressed mood or anxiety,” explains Moustafa. “Antipsychotic drugs are also common in treating bipolar disorder,” she continues, “as are anticonvulsants, prescribed to prevent or control seizures and relieve pain which may be associated with the condition.”

 

Related—loosely or otherwise—to further conditions including psychosis, schizophrenia, clinical depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and borderline personality disorder, supportive care for bipolar disorder may involve hospitalization, whereby a patient can be more closely monitored and given medications which would not be available at home.

 

“In suspected cases of bipolar disorder,” Moustafa adds, wrapping up, “a formal diagnosis should be sought from either a clinical psychologist, psychiatrist, or—where a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist may be inaccessible or otherwise unavailable—a primary care physician or family doctor.”

 

In addition to her in-depth knowledge of bipolar disorder, Los Angeles-based Californian behavioral expert Rocio Moustafa’s other areas of expertise include extreme or debilitating fears and phobias, sleep conditions, and passive-dependent personality disorder, among numerous additional health and wellness complaints related to cognition, perception, and mood.

Rocio Moustafa Reveals Struggle Faced by Medical Professionals Prone to Hemophobia

Rocio Moustafa Reveals Struggle Faced by Medical Professionals Prone to Hemophobia

Behavioral expert Rocio Moustafa explores blood and injury phobias among those employed in the medical field.

 

rocio moustafa
Rocio Moustafa

A concern among many in the medical field, hemophobia represents an extreme fear of blood, responsible for causing severe physical reactions uncommon in many other phobias, including vasovagal syncope, or fainting spells. Here, mood, cognition, and perception specialist Rocio Moustafa from Ventura, California reveal more about the struggle faced by medical professionals plagued with this and similar phobias.

 

“Hemophobia, or so-called ‘blood phobia,’ is an extreme and often largely irrational fear of blood,” explains Moustafa. However, unlike many phobias which have no physical symptoms and are wholly psychological, hemophobia regularly causes fainting, known in medical circles as vasovagal syncope, according to the Ventura, California-based behavioral expert.

 

“This can pose a significant problem for those in the medical field who suffer from a phobia of blood,” adds Moustafa.

 

One of a number of similar fears, hemophobia is closely tied to traumatophobia or an abnormal, pathological fear of sustaining an injury. Also resulting in fainting spells, traumatophobia is classified as a mental disorder by the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, originally published in 1994.

 

“The term ‘injury phobia’ or, more formally, traumatophobia may be used to encompass similarly or related fears, including hemophobia or a specific fear of blood,” points out Moustafa, adding that the condition may be centered around one or more phobia types including injury, blood, or injections, for example.

 

Rocio Moustafa Doesn’t Mind Blood Like Many Others

While many individuals may harbor a general dislike of blood or injections, or rational fear of serious injury, an abnormal or pathological fear may not become apparent in day-to-day life. “As such, hemophobia, traumatophobia, and other related fears may only become fully apparent when an individual finds themselves thrust into close proximity to blood or serious injuries,” explains Moustafa, “such as when entering medical training or practice.”

 

Causing a drop in blood pressure, in contrast to many other phobias which cause the heart rate and thus blood pressure to rise, a fear of blood or injury, in addition to causing fainting, may also lead to anticipatory anxiety, responsible for extreme shaking and gastrointestinal distress. These symptoms may become apparent upon sight of—or contact with—blood, or in the hours or days prior to an anticipated encounter with either blood or some form of injury, including giving or receiving an injection or injections.

 

“Accordingly, specific phobias such as a fear of blood or injury are often not appropriate for individuals employed in the medical field,” Moustafa adds, wrapping up, “and so must be addressed before pursuing a career in this particular line of work.”

 

Further to her in-depth knowledge surrounding fears and phobias, Ventura-based Californian behavioral expert Rocio Moustafa’s other areas of expertise include bipolar, passive-dependent personality, manic depressive, and sleep disorders, among numerous additional conditions related to cognition, perception, and mood.

Rocio Moustafa Ventura California

Rocio Moustafa uncovers obstacles associated with passive-dependent personality disorder

Behavior expert Rocio Moustafa explores the struggles faced by those diagnosed with passive-dependent personality disorder from her office in Ventura, California.

Passive-dependent personality disorder is among the most common personality disorders routinely diagnosed by medical professionals and behavioral experts such as Rocio Moustafa, a specialist focused on health conditions and well-being complaints tied to mood, cognition, and perception, based in the pretty coastal city of Ventura, California. Here, she reveals a number of the many obstacles commonly faced by those suffering from the disorder.

“Passive-dependent personality disorder occurs equally in both men and women,” reveals Moustafa, “most often becoming evident in either young adulthood or slightly later in life as more important adult relationships are formed.”

Common traits among those diagnosed with passive-dependent personality disorder include pessimism, a lack of self-confidence, oversensitivity to criticism, and a tendency to be unduly naive or to routinely fantasize about various aspects of day-to-day life, according to Moustafa. “They may also endure difficulty in being alone, and, as a result, be open to tolerating mistreatment and abuse from other, less-than-favorable individuals,” she adds.

Rocio Moustafa goes on to explain that those with passive-dependent personality disorder often become entirely emotionally dependent on other people in their life. “They will usually spend a great deal of time and effort trying to please them,” she adds, “typically displaying clinging, needy behavior driven by a fear of rejection or separation.”

This may result in avoidance of normal adult responsibilities or utter dependence on a third party to make all manner of important life decisions, including where to work or live, for example, according to Moustafa. “A person with passive-dependent personality disorder will usually live in intense fear of abandonment, demonstrating utter devastation or complete helplessness when a relationship ends,” adds the expert.

Furthermore, an individual with passive-dependent personality disorder, she says, will often move immediately into a new romantic relationship when a previous one ends.

While no single, accepted cause for the disorder exists, it’s widely understood to be the result of a combination of developmental, biological, psychological, and temperamental factors. Research has also demonstrated that an authoritarian or overprotective parenting style may lead to the development of passive-dependent personality traits later in life.

Diagnosis, says Moustafa, typically first involves distinguishing between the possibility of either passive-dependent personality disorder or borderline personality disorder, with the two conditions sharing a number of similar symptoms. “Passive-dependent personality disorder is, however, distinct in that it presents as a crippling fear of abandonment, while in those with borderline personality disorder, the possibility of abandonment is, instead, met either with rage or emptiness,” she reveals.

“Assuming no physical basis for the condition is found,” Moustafa adds, wrapping up, “an individual deemed to be suffering from passive-dependent personality disorder will often be referred to a medical professional trained to deal with mental illnesses, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist, for ongoing treatment.”

Further to her in-depth knowledge of passive-dependent personality disorder, Ventura-based Californian behavior expert Rocio Moustafa’s other areas of expertise include bipolar, manic depressive, and sleep disorders, among numerous additional conditions related to cognition, perception, and mood.

Rocio Moustafa Ventura California

Rocio Moustafa addresses gambling addiction and its consequences

Ventura, California’s Rocio Moustafa takes a closer look at the consequences of gambling addiction in the United States.

Becoming increasingly prevalent in large parts of the United States in recent years, Rocio Moustafa explores gambling addiction and addresses the often profoundly troubling consequences of the condition.

“Gambling addiction is capable of ruining friendships and tearing whole families apart,” reveals Moustafa, an expert on the various maladaptations related to mood, behavior, cognition, and perception, currently based in the popular coastal city of Ventura, California.

Unlike addiction to drugs and alcohol, gambling addiction is psychological, rather than physically addictive. While symptoms of physical addiction—such as an addiction to heroin—may include memory loss, blackouts, seizures, vomiting, disorientation, blood pressure changes, tremors and shaking, and restless legs, the symptoms of psychological addiction, according to Moustafa, are rather different.

“Psychological addictions, including addictions to gambling, are more emotional, and symptoms often present as anxiety, irritability, restlessness, insomnia, social isolation, and an inability to concentrate,” she reveals.

These, Ventura-based Moustafa suggests, may lead to secondary physical symptoms including tightness in the chest, a racing heart, sweating, tremors, and nausea. “Another psychological symptom is severe depression which, in turn, has its own consequences, from the breakdown of marriages to job losses and severe debt,” the expert adds.

Gambling addiction has also been demonstrated to have community-wide effects in areas where the issue is particularly prevalent, including—in addition to increased rates of unemployment—increased alcohol and drug abuse, fraud and check forgery, bankruptcy, and homelessness.

A recent report carried out by the North American Foundation for Gambling Addiction Help suggests that as many as 10 million adults in the United States have some form of gambling addiction, equivalent to around 2.6% of the total population. Another study undertaken by the organization, meanwhile, reveals that compulsive betting behavior in the U.S. today translates into a cost of approximately $6 billion per year, resulting in a significant impact upon the nation’s economy and its citizens.

“Not everyone who partakes in gambling has a problem or a serious dependency, of course,” points out Moustafa, “with many playing sensibly and for fun, and to feel a little risk.”

“Unfortunately, however,” she adds, wrapping up, “for other individuals, such forms of entertainment can lead to an illness which must be taken seriously and treated in much the same way as drug or alcohol addiction.”

Rocio Moustafa is based in Ventura, a California coastal city northwest of Los Angeles and famed for its beaches, surfing, windsurfing, and long, wooden pier. Further to her in-depth knowledge of gambling addiction and its consequences, Moustafa’s other areas of expertise include bipolar disorder, manic depressive disorder, insomnia, and various other sleep disorders.

Rocio Moustafa

Rocio Moustafa explores symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder

Ventura, California resident Rocio Moustafa explores common symptoms among those with narcissistic personality disorder.

A personality disorder characterized by an excessive need for admiration, exaggerated feelings of self-importance, and a lack of empathy for others, narcissistic personality disorder is commonly associated with a long-term pattern of abnormal and undesirable behaviors. That’s according to Rocio Moustafa, an expert on the various maladaptations related to mood, behaviour, cognition, and perception based in Ventura, California, as she explores a number of common symptoms typically seen in those afflicted with the condition.

“Narcissism, and thus narcissistic personality disorder, often presents with many symptoms, chief among which, usually, are various issues surrounding a lack of self-control,” explains Moustafa.

Self-control is defined as the ability to regulate one’s thoughts and emotions in the face of temptation and other impulses. As an executive function and an aspect of inhibitory control, it is, therefore, a cognitive process which is vital for regulating behavior, according to Moustafa. “As such, a lack of self-control can, as a result, lead to numerous highly undesirable behaviors,” she adds.

“Other symptoms of narcissism include an inability to handle any and all criticism,” the expert continues, “plus a disregard for others’ feelings and an overriding sense of entitlement.”

Moustafa, who’s currently based in Ventura, California, around 80 miles northwest of Los Angeles, reveals that those most commonly affected by narcissistic personality disorder are typically aged between 19 and 40 years old.

The condition is widely considered rare, with fewer than 200,000 cases identified in the U.S. per year according to Mayo Clinic, a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota.

“Another symptom of narcissistic personality disorder deals with control of others,” adds Moustafa. Patients afflicted with this disorder, she says, will often attempt to control their partner using projective identification, placing guilt on them in order to achieve what they perceive as ‘power’ over the individual.

“While narcissistic personality disorder is most common among those aged between 19 and 40, age is not strictly a limiting factor,” Moustafa continues, “with the disorder often proving particularly debilitating in relationships, with the afflicted party often trying to drain the energy of their partner who, quite often, finds himself or herself becoming a victim.”

Currently, narcissistic personality disorder must be formally diagnosed by a qualified psychiatrist. While treatment is touted to help, the condition cannot be fully cured, according to the Ventura-based expert.

Narcissistic personality disorder is a chronic or lifelong condition, Moustafa reveals. “While the root cause of narcissistic personality disorder remains unknown, it likely involves a combination of environmental and genetic factors,” she adds, wrapping up, “with the most effective treatment currently available centered around so-called talk therapy.”

Rocio Moustafa is based in Ventura, a California coastal city northwest of Los Angeles. Further to narcissistic personality disorder, Moustafa’s other areas of expertise include bipolar disorder, manic depressive disorder, insomnia, and other sleep disorders.